Sample preparations at the Thermal spray lab at Tampere University

As a part of the icing research conducted at Novia UAS, one aim is to help forest and bioenergy companies with finding new solutions and ways of decreasing the freezing and adhesion of wood chips to storage container walls during cold weathers. In order to do so, close cooperation with the thermal spray and icing laboratories at project partner Tampere University has begun, where experimentation setup and work with different anti-icing and icephobic coatings and surfaces has started.

During a week in August, project personnel from Novia and Tampere University met at the thermal spray laboratory at TAU in order to prepare for and start up the collaborative experimentation work. As the goal of the experimentation is to investigate wood chip freezing behavior on differently coated surfaces, the first part of the preparations consisted of treating and coating the surfaces of test boxes and sample plates. These will later be filled with wood chips and placed in a cold room, after which different centrifugation, cycling and adhesion tests will be performed.

The project personnel from Tampere University and Novia UAS in front of a flame-sprayed polyethylene metal plate
Picture 1. Flame spraying of polyethylene coatings on metal plates in the thermal spray lab at Tampere University. From left to right: Jari Oja (TAU), Heli Koivuluoto (TAU), Anssi Metsähonkala (TAU), Jarkko Lehti (TAU), Julien Walser (Novia UAS) and Katrin Asplund (Novia UAS).

The coatings were done by flame spraying LD-PE powder onto the sides of the metal test boxes with the help of a robot (ABB IRB 4400/60), gun (CastoDyn DS 8000) and the powder feeder (Sulzer Metco 4MP). By carefully programming and adjusting pretreatment conditions as well as parameters such as temperatures, pressures, powder feeding rates and layers, a dense polyethylene coating could be created.

Thermal coating setup and equipment
Picture 2. The setup and equipment used for thermally coating the box sides (on the left), and a thermally sprayed polyethylene coated test surface (on the right).

Test plate thermally sprayed with PE- coating


For the box tests, three metal boxes will be used: one box coated with the flame spayed polyethylene (FS-PE), one flame sprayed with SLIPS and one untreated box for reference. Furthermore, a box made of PE- Quicksilver will used. In addition to the boxes, small sample plates for the centrifugation adhesion tests (CAT) were also prepared with the flame sprayed polyethylene coating (FS-PE), whereas more CAT samples will be made with other surface coatings, ie. FS-SLIPS, hydrophobic coatings, and oils such as silicon and rapeseed and tested out with the frozen wood chips in the icing laboratory.

Samples ready to be coated
Picture 3. CAT samples ready for coating (on the left), coated test box and logos (on the right).

Coated test box

Starting off 2020 – Project Meeting in Luleå

On the 13 – 14th of February, the NoICE project group gathered in snowy Luleå to hold a third project meeting. Present were participants from all five partner universities; Luleå University of Technology, Umeå University, Tampere University, University of Vaasa as well as Novia University of Applied Sciences, and the meeting offered a perfect opportunity for both new and old icing experts to sit down together and discuss topical issues.

The project group has so far concentrated much of their efforts on conducting a series of case and simulation studies on a couple of themes related to icing. The perspectives of the studies are as well wide as detailed, and the research portfolio consist of e.g. train delay studies using weather station data and simulations as a base for predictions, as well as laboratory testing and simulation of ice accretion under different conditions, using differently treated surfaces and materials.

Project group gathering in Luleå
From left to right: Jun Yu (UmU), Andreas Willfors (Novia), Mats Johansson (UmU), Heli Koivuluoto (TAU), Patrik Eklund (UmU), Katrin Asplund (Novia), Jyri Nieminen (UVA), Jianfeng Wang (UmU), Roberto Mantas Nakhai (LTU) and Jari Oja (TAU)

As the overarching goal of the project is to support companies and industries with overcoming problems related to atmospheric icing and to create a permanent icing competence center, the topics of research are tailored to bridge specific challenges encountered by the companies within the region.

Does your company have a distinct wintertime icing problem you want us to look into? Don’t hesitate to be in contact with us, either through this link or through our LinkedIn page!

Field Tests for Icephobic Surfaces in Lohtaja

Researchers, PhD Student Henna Niemelä-Anttonen and Dr. Heli Koivuluoto from Tampere University (TAU), got a great opportunity to test icephobic surfaces in Lohtaja in the training area of the Finnish Defence Forces. This test experience was done in March 2019.

Thanks to Mr. Riku Niemenmaa from The Finnish Defence Forces, TAU got this chance to investigate the outdoor behavior of our surfaces in the small plane Banshee. Different surface designs were fixed to the leading edge of the plane and their behavior during the flight was pictured with a GoPro camera.

Banshee planeResearchers in Lohtaja

Before tests: Surfaces fixed for the test. Researchers ready to observe testing setup in the field.

Surfaces during the flights in two-days testing. In the first day, it was snowing and temperature close to 0˚C whereas in the second day, the weather was sunny and temperature around -5˚C.

After the flights the tested surfaces were visually in a good shape, not damaged. This indicates their potential to be used in outdoor conditions. Research and development continue based on the findings and observations during this experience. Field tests are very important as the next step after laboratory testing. Application-related requirements need to be carefully considered while developing icephobic surfaces. In TAU, the icephobic surfaces are developed by using several surface engineering solutions and then evaluating the icing performance of the surfaces and materials in the Icing lab with the icing wind tunnel (IWiT), the centrifugal ice adhesion testing (CAT) and other supporting characterization techniques. During this Lohtaja trip the TAU icing research team got a lot of new knowledge for future development, by improving understanding of application-related behavior and requirements. This is encouraging for continued research and development of the best icephobic solutions.

Text by Heli Koivuluoto
Pictures by Henna Niemelä-Anttonen and Heli Koivuluoto

Potential Solution for Icing Challenges by TAU

PhD Student Valentina Donadei from Tampere University (TAU) presented her latest research on icephobic coatings in Japan at the International Thermal Spray Conference 2019 (ITSC2019). The research has also been published in the proceedings: Valentina Donadei, Heli Koivuluoto, Petri Vuoristo, Effect of Process Parameters on Properties of Flame-Sprayed Icephobic Polymer Coatings, ITSC2019 – Proceedings, F. Azarmi, Y. Lau, J. Veilleux, C. Widener, F. Toma, H. Koivuluoto, K. Balani, Hi. Li, K. Shinoda (Eds.), May 26-29, 2019, Yokohama, Japan, 563-570. This research is done under LubISS project and focusses on the development of icephobic coatings with high durability by using thermal spraying as the coating manufacturing method. The LubISS (Lubricant Impregnated Slippery Surfaces) project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 722497. These results are interesting for NoICE project as well, acting as one of the potential solutions for icing challenges in different application fields.

Valentina working in TAU’s Icing lab, temperature is -10˚C and the ice has been accreted in the icing wind tunnel.

2nd Project Meeting

The second NoICE project meeting was held in Umeå on April 25th 2019 and it was attended by three representatives from Umeå University, one from Luleå University of Technology, three from University of Vaasa and two from Novia UAS. Additionally the icing expert who will be working within the project took part in the meeting, as did the Swedish business developer.

The partner universities all presented the project work they had performed so far.

Presentation by Mats Johansson, Umeå University

Presentation by Kendall Rutledge, Novia UAS

Presentation by Roberto Mantas, Luleå University of Technology

Presentation by Jun Yu, Louise Ottoson and Zhiyong Zhou, Umeå University

Presentation by Petri Välisuo and Thileepan Paulraj, University of Vaasa

NoICE – Relation Between Icing Conditions and Train Delays

Presentation by Harri Lehtinen, University of Vaasa

Presentation by Merinova

Botnia-Atlantica Projects in Vasa Arranged a Gender Equality Seminar

In what way can you highlight equality in project activities, and why is it important? These were questions that people, working in Botnia-Atlantica funded projects, thought about during a gender equality seminar in March.

Speak to and treat one another in an equal way, so that everyone feels seen, heard and appreciated regardless of gender. This was the core message delivered by lecturer Malin Gustavsson. Malin is a gender equality expert and the CEO of Ekvalita, a consultancy bureau that works with equality and similar treatment of all in organizations, schools and companies.

– The way we act and the way we see other people is largely dependent on what kind of gender norms we follow. Here we ourselves can make a difference within the projects we are running, by making the gender norm inclusive and welcoming instead of excluding, says Malin.

By “including norm” Malin means a way of treating people that make you feel appreciated, that your knowledge and opinions matter and that other factors, like e.g. gender, isn´t what decides if you fit into a group or not.

– Take for example a project that is about technology. Even if one could instinctively think that it is a field dominated by men you can make the project inclusive for all by the way you express yourself, who you choose to cooperate with and who you appoint as the target group; Simply think about whom you want to include and how, says Malin.

Malin emphasizes that we maintain the heteronorm we grew up with, every day. In the society this norm is about fitting in either as a man or a woman with all the attributes that we see as male or female.

– It can be interesting to think about how you might be maintaining the heteronorm within the project activities. You can ask yourself: what kind of a group do we want to have within the project? If we do not want to create a group that consists of solely persons of the same gender, with the same education and working experience, how can we create a more heterogenic working group, cooperation network or target group. How can the project group approach its target group in a way that makes everyone feel considered? The norms are there in everything we do in the projects: In whom we invite to meetings, who we choose to be part of the steering committee, how we communicate and in the ways we choose to market the project.

According to Malin the road to equality within project work has four steps. First we simply need to recognize if there are issues that prevent equality, then understand wherein the problem lies, then motivate yourself and the project group to work with the issue and finally make the right decisions so that change can happen.

– In all projects you can start by studying your goals and which values you work in accordance with. We can all think about how our work affects others and in what way we might be making a difference between genders in the way we operate. By daring to challenge our norms we can break old patterns and instead increase the diversity and equality in the projects.

Within Interreg Botnia-Atlantica extra focus has been put on demand for equality during the project period 2014-2020. Equality integration in projects include gender theory and equality politics. The seminar in Vasa targeted people that work in Botnia-Atlantica funded projects, for which the R&D departments of Novia University of Applied Sciences or University of Vaasa has the lead.

Written by Catrin Sandvik
(translated by Heidi Smart)

1st Project Meeting

The first project meeting was at held at Novia University of Applied Sciences in Vasa 14-15.11.2019 and representatives from all five participating universities were present.

During the meeting it was discussed whether other types of icing than atmospheric icing, in its true scientific sense, should be included in order to be able to identify more icing cases. The consensus was to also include in-cloud/fog icing, freezing rain, wet snow icing and marine spray icing. In this context it was also mentioned that wind turbine blades have to be excluded, since blade icing was touched upon in the Botnia-Atlantica funded project Wind CoE.

University of Vaasa suggested that a digital platform, where stakeholders could find the latest information about icing related matters such as an icing event forecasting tool and icing related articles, could be established. The platform could also be used for exchanging expertise and solutions among the users. The idea was supported by everyone present and it was agreed that University of Vaasa would continue developing the concept.

Kendall Rutledge from Novia UAS told about the process of procuring business development services. The business developers will help identify “atmospheric icing problem-ed” companies and bring them into a business network. The clusters are initially to be formed nationally and later the clusters will be joined to one. The companies in the business network will tell about their problems and NoICE will learn about their icing issues, teach the latest technologies, and work on some example cases. Expert services related to e.g. atmospheric icing on structures will also be obtained through public procurement process.

Further it was decided that:
1. By Dec 15, 2018 all members would have cooperation agreements iterated with their legal groups and be ready to sign after incorporation into a single document
2. By Dec 15, 2018 all members would send a name for nomination onto the steering group
3. All members would search for rail wintertime icing delay information in both Finland and Sweden (actual delay data, icing observations data and ice maintenance service data) and report by Feb 1, 2019
4. All members would learn more about available icing observations in their countries and especially networked observations
5. Novia would develop a summary of ice observation information for the full Scandinavian region derived from publically available METAR data
6. Novia would establish a disk space for sharing documents amongst members (e.g. DropBox)
7. Novia would establish a document for all member to contribute to / edit to specify the train delay case study identified during the meeting
8. Novia would distribute the A3 “project poster” to each member

Regarding marketing and communication issues it was agreed that Heidi Smart from Novia UAS would procure a logo for the project and create a Twitter account to help spread information about the project. The webpage, which has already been initiated, will be found at and a LinkedIn company page has also been created ( . The webpage will include some kind of blog and the project team agreed that they could contribute to it.

Icing Center Members:
Dr. Heli Koivuluoto, Materials Scientist, Surface Engineering Specialist, Tampere University of Technology
Dr. Petri Välisuo, Physicist, Metrologist and Statistical Learning Specialist, Vaasan Yliopisto
Prof. Jun Yu, Statistical Scientist, Spatial Statistics Specialist, Umeå University
Prof. Patrik Eklund, Logic Theorist, Process Model Specialist, Umeå University
Prof. Javier Martin-Torres, Atmospheric Scientist, Planetary Atmospheres Radiative Transfer Specialist,
Luleå University of Technology
Kendall Rutledge, Project Manager, Novia University of Applied Sciences

Kendall Rutledge, Thileepan Paulraj, Merja Pakkanen, Petri Välisuo, Heli Koivuluoto, Patrik Eklund, Ricardo Fonseca, Dennis Bengs and Heidi Smart